离考试还有3天,如何开阔托福写作思路?

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距离1月7日的托福考试还有3天时间,你准备好了吗?




托福写作5分的评分标准中,

"an essay is well organized and well developed, using clearly appropriate explanations, exemplifications and/or details"

该项评分向我们具体阐述了文章组织的重要性以及段落拓展的要求


Tips

大部分考生在写作时,思绪很乱容易偏题想到哪写哪,并不能将自己的论点建立在一个有效的框架中使之规范化。这些问题都会影响到考生的写作分数。

在此,提出“正-反-反”结构是为帮助考生在写作训练和考试中节省时间,并快速进行批判性思考。


什么是“正-反-反”结构?

“正”是指从正面同意论题中的假设或者结论的角度进行论述;

“反”是指从反面或对立面角度驳斥论题中的假设或者结论。


Tips

这与我们传统角度的意义正好相反。一般,我们会认为“反”就是与自己的想法和立场相反其实不然!它指的是题干中的内容或者论述相反


以下是一篇自创文章,运用“正-反-反”结构完成并附上分析


Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Nowadays, neighbors depend on each other less than people in the past.


Any discussion related to neighbor's relationship will never fail to raise public awareness, and subsequently invokes much concern about social connection and intimacy. Seeing plenty of conflicts about neighbors, I generally support, though very miserable, that neighbors ignore emotional connection and rely less on each other.


(正)

Admittedly, family, neighborhood, community are apple-pie virtues for some of the people, especially ranging from age 50 to 70, who chat with each other or say hello to their neighbors. In reality, these old men always chat in the square of districts, discussing the events that newly happen or some secret affair heard from others about money, career and house. Thus, it is widespread for them to drop around and ask their neighbors for help. Even some of them organize some dance parties. These regular community parties can help form the good neighborhood, as well as maintain cordial relations with others, which put color on their boring routine. Although this lifestyle seems inconceivable for us young adults, they can enjoy themselves with neighbors and exercise themselves.


(反)

However, the above relationship with neighbor is not the mainstream in the society. In fact, there are more young adults and adolescents, who focus on personal stuffs and individual enjoyment, than the old group. Besides, the availability of a great variety of high-tech recreational facilities also diverts young people from enjoying chats with neighbors, bringing them more interesting things which can easily captivate their attention, such as watching TV, surfing the internet or playing videogames. Consequently, these young people are addicted to these activities, totally neglecting the feelings of their friends or family members. As well, there is another phenomenon commonly exiting in our life: the young, however old he is, concentrate more on their own phones rather than the person who stands behind them in the elevator. However, in the past, neighbors chatted with each other frequently gaining more information and having fun. Unfortunately, it is an inevitable tendency of the ignorance between neighbors.


(反)

Furthermore, the transformation of individuals' inner sense of security is to blame as well. As the fast tempo of life, there is a credibility gap between individuals, and thus we weaken our trust to others, let alone strangers, because excessive reports of deception on the media disappoints us, leaving us in a world with violence and crimes. Gradually, we are fret about talking with our neighbors, seldom ask them for help and give a hand when they are in trouble. This is an age of crisis of confidence, contradicting the behaviors in the past when neighboring fellows always dropped by.


In conclusion, the former two reasons, among others, can explain that neighbor relations nowadays are more aloof and alienated than before, meaning we depend less on others. If the situation were to continue, it is detrimental for human moral construction, particularly for our younger generation. Therefore, both state and individuals should take actions, making the virtue of neighborhood instilled in everyone. Only in a prosperous, reasonable atmosphere can we hope to witness the ideal scene in which neighbors and friends can chat freely and they trust worthy to rely on.


从上述文章中可以看出,“正-反-反”的构架其实就是先让步写对方存在的合理性,然后再进行自己一方的论证,其中有一步就是用however来否定对方的不足用furthermore来实现论证的升华

 

本篇文章讲的主题是邻里关系问题,现代人不如以前那么融洽并依赖邻居了。无论同意与否,文章的框架分析都是相似的。

 

同意的理由:

1. 大部分的年轻人在休闲娱乐上受到科技发明的影响,摒弃了传统的聊天方式。交流少了,自然依赖性降低。

2. 现在人与人之间缺乏信任,我们正经历着信任危机。而且社会中有许多欺骗报告存在,减少了人们的安全感。

上述因素都将造成相比过去,现今人们越来越不依赖邻居了。

 

不赞同的理由:

仍存在一些老人家或者中年人,在小镇中,比较喜欢大家一起聊天聚聚,增添生活乐趣。

 

从上述的论点就可以看出,本篇文章先对于对象进行了具体分析,采用分类法进行讨论,然后再进一步完善自己一方的观点。


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